The Nyingma tradition is the oldest of the four major sects of Tibetan Buddhism. Here is some recommended reading material for those looking to learn more about this tradition.


There are three stages in Zen practice, in this order:


The only three sources of information recognized by the Samkhya school of Indian philosophy are perception, inference and reliable tradition (In that order!). Inference is used when perception is impossible and tradition is accepted where both of these are unavailable. Perception is understood as direct sense-perception of the sort acquired by the five senses, and these are understood as mediating cognition of the fundamental elements of existence. These senses are understood as objects of the cognition of the psyche, which itself consists of the three faculties of the mind (manas), intellect (buddhi) and ego (ahamkara).

The mind produces a representation…


The rough equivalent for “soul” in Jainism is “Jiva.” The jiva is subject to constant change by virtue of incarnation but is no longer subject to them when it is free of the body from final liberation from reincarnation. In this respect, Jainism is quite dualistic as a philosophy. The soul pervades the entire body and adjusts its size to fit whatever body it inhabits, pervading the entire organism and keeping it alive as long as it inhabits the body. …


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We have already begun to understand the relationship between prakriti and purusha in Samkhya philosophy. When the three gunas were balanced, prakriti was undisturbed and in a state of prakriti-pradhana, a state of original purity and lack of defilement. It was not until purusha approached prakriti that suffering emerged. When purusha activated prakriti through this approached, the “great principle”, known as the “buddhi” or “awakened intelligence,” arose. This is also known as “Mahat,” a form of intuition or cognition that is nevertheless not explicable in terms of consciousness as we understand it.

Mahat possesses a great deal of intelligence and…


Related to the three bodies of physical, astral and causal bodies, we have the five material elements of the physical world. There are also five sheaths or koshas that that cover the Atman or Self, which are understood as layers of an onion in a subtle body. These five sheaths are intimately related to the three bodies, as each tends to be associated with one of the three (the food sheath with the physical body, the vital sheath with the astral body, the bliss sheath with the causal body).


Liberation is understood as freedom from the prakriti in which Purusha has become enmeshed. This is often termed “kaivalya,” which means aloofness. Since prakriti is understood as the realm of spacetime that subjects us to suffering, kaivalya involves separation from the body. Separation from the mind, however, is also necessary, because what we understand as the mind is no less physical a manifestation of prakriti than the physical body. …


Samkhya is one of the six āstika schools of Indian philosophy. A highly dualistic philosophy, it sees Purusha as a divine clockmaker that exists outside of spacetime, understood as a soul, self or pure consciousness, and the fundamental source of all consciousness. Our own human consciousness is the result of this pre-existing consciousness. Prakriti, on the other hand, refers to the created world of spacetime. It is understood as creative, feminine energy. Purusha is not the creator of prakriti but is responsible for the animation of prakriti with life.

Samkhya philosophy teaches that there are innumerable individual purushas, each of…


The Sanskrit term “dhyana,” related to the Pali word “jhana” (used in the Buddhist Pali Canon), represents a collection of meditation-related practices in Hinduism that are nevertheless distinct from meditation as most Buddhists understand it. Dhyana is the seventh anga (limb or level) in the 8-step Yoga practice of Patanjali, and is therefore very important to Hindus and is understood as the step immediately prior to Samadhi.

Prior to dhyana, other Yogic practices are embraced, such as Yama (abstaining from violence, falsehood, sensory over-stimulation), Niyama (purity, contentment, austerity), Asana and Pranayama (which have to do with body postures and breathing…


Many of us are at least superficially with the Hindu and Buddhist understanding of karma, but the Jain religion has a unique understanding of what karma is and how karma works. As with the other religions, adherents of Jainism believe that karma impacts the course of your life, but differences quickly emerge when it comes to understanding the causal mechanisms by which this happens.

Jains believe that karma results from karman particles, which are inanimate particles that share the universe with us. They are so small that they cannot be observed and a cluster of karman particles is known as…

Monad Mantis

Experienced psychology writer and practitioner of psi abilities. Looking forward to contributing to a worldwide awakening to the reality of psi phenomena.

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