“Brahman is alone True, and this world of plurality is an error; the individual self is not different from Brahman”
Advaita Vedānta, a version of Vedānta, is an interpretive principle that reads the philosophy of the Upaniṣads in terms of “non-dualism” or “non-secondness.” Śaṅkara is regarded as the most important exponent of the school, as a kind of idealistic monism. This philosophy teaches that the Brahman (both transcendent and immanent) manifests itself in the world through its creative energy (māyā). The world has no separate existence apart from Brahman. Both the individual self (jīva) and ultimate divine self of the Universe (ātman) are both reducible to “Brahman.”
As Bernardo Kastrup has recently argued, the boundary that apparently distinguishes individual from the totality of the cosmos is purely artificial, as the individual self is ultimately identical with, and reducible to, this animus mundi. The perception of apparent plurality is interpreted as error in judgment (mithya) and ignorance (avidya), while knowledge of this truth liberates the individual from the cycle of reincarnation. Just as biological modules in the brain may be artificially separated from one another, but united within the same person, so also is the individual self united with the totality of the cosmos. Indeed, the Advaita School, consciousness is not a property of Brahman but its very nature.